Simulating rate dependent spalling with an overstress model
Rafael, PO Box 2250, Haifa 31021, Israel
It has been known for a long time that spalling (dynamic tensile failure) is a rate dependent process. Spall strength of metals is determined from the pullback velocity of the free surface velocity history in planar impact spalling tests. Conducting these tests for different volume strain rates in the tension zone, it was established that spall strength increases with strain-rate according to a power law: Strengthspall = A∗(rate)m, where the power m is a small number compared to unity. Nevertheless, standard spall models in commercial and propriety hydrocodes use constant spall strength, and are not able to predict the rate dependence. We propose here a rate dependent spalling model which is based on the overstress concept. In a constant spall strength model, when the negative pressure reaches the negative spall-strength value, pressure is put to zero within a single time step. In our rate dependent model we allow the negative pressure to go above the current negative spall-strength according to specified rate coefficients (calibrated from tests), while the negative pressure is decreased proportional to the amount of overstress above the current negative strength value. We calibrate our rate coefficients according to experimental data for a Stainless Steel and demonstrate how the model works using a 1D hydrocode for planar impacts with different strain rates in the tension zone.
© Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2012