Study on 3-inch Hamamatsu photomultipliers
INFN Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, 95125 Catania, Italy
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Published online: 6 July 2016
Several kinds of photomultipliers are widely used in astroparticle physics detectors to measure Cherenkov light in media like water or ice. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module, which consists of one or more photodetectors inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere. It serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. The KM3NeT collaboration has developed an innovative design of an optical module composed by 31 photomultipliers (PMTs) of 3-inch diameter housed in a 17-inch glass shpere. The performance of the telescope is largely dependent on the presence on noise pulses present on the anode of the photomultipliers. A study was conducted of noise pulses of Hamamatsu 3-inch diameter photomultipliers measuring time and charge distributions of dark pulses, pre-pulses, delayed pulses and after-pulses, focusing in particular on analysis on multiple afterpulses. Effects of the Earth's magnetic field on 3-inch PMTs were also studied.
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