EPJ Web Conf.
Volume 131, 2016Nobel Symposium NS 160 – Chemistry and Physics of Heavy and Superheavy Elements
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Section||Atomic Structure and Interfaces|
|Published online||01 December 2016|
First ionization potential of the heaviest actinide lawrencium, element 103
1 Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, Japan
2 The Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen, 9700 AB Groningen, The Netherlands
3 ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
4 Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512, Japan
5 Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany
6 GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany
7 Institut für Kernchemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany
8 School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv, Israel
9 Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan
10 Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan
11 Institute of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 910-2181, Japan
a Corresponding author:e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: 1 December 2016
The first ionization potential (IP1) of element 103, lawrencium (Lr), has been successfully determined for the first time by using a newly developed method based on a surface ionization process. The measured IP1 value is 4.9630.080.07 eV. This value is the smallest among those of actinide elements and is in excellent agreement with the value of 4.963(15) eV predicted by state-of-the-art relativistic calculations also performed in this work. Our results strongly support that the Lr atom has an electronic configuration of [Rn]7s25f147p11/2, which is influenced by strong relativistic effects. The present work provides a reliable benchmark for theoretical calculations and also opens the way for studies on atomic properties of heavy elements with atomic number Z > 100. Moreover, the present achievement has triggered a controversy on the position of lutetium (Lu) and Lr in the Periodic Table of Elements.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences 2016
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