EPJ Web Conf.
Volume 210, 2019Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays 2018 (UHECR 2018)
|Number of page(s)||10|
|Published online||17 May 2019|
Report on Tests and Measurements of Hadronic Interaction Properties with Air Showers
Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
2 Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Universidad Michoacana, C.P. 58040 Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico
3 LIP, Lisbon, Portugal
4 Bartol Institute, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA
5 Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
6 High Energy Astrophysics Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
7 D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
8 Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow 117312, Russia
9 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
10 Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
11 Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Jang-an-gu, Suwon, Korea
12 National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow 115409, Russia
13 EAS-MSU experiment, Moscow, Russia
14 IceCube Neutrino Observatory, Madison WI, USA
15 KASCADE-Grande experiment, Karlsruhe, Germany
16 NEVOD-DECOR experiment, Moscow, Russia
17 Pierre Auger Observatory, Malargüe, Argentina
18 SUGAR Array, Sidney, Australia
19 Telescope Array Project, Salt Lake City UT, USA
20 Yakutsk EAS Array, Yakutsk, Russia
* e-mail: email@example.com Full author list: https://icecube.wisc.edu/collaboration/authors/icecube Full author list: http://www.auger.org/archive/authors_2018_10.html Full author list: http://www.telescopearray.org/research/collaborators Full author list: https://ikfia.ysn.ru/en/theyakutskarrayteam
Published online: 17 May 2019
We present a summary of recent tests and measurements of hadronic interaction properties with air showers. This report has a special focus on muon density measurements. Several experiments reported deviations between simulated and recorded muon densities in extensive air showers, while others reported no discrepancies. We combine data from eight leading air shower experiments to cover shower energies from PeV to tens of EeV. Data are combined using the z-scale, a unified reference scale based on simulated air showers. Energy-scales of experiments are cross-calibrated. Above 10 PeV, we find a muon deficit in simulated air showers for each of the six considered hadronic interaction models. The deficit is increasing with shower energy. For the models EPOS-LHC and QGSJet-II.04, the slope is found significant at 8 sigma.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
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