EPJ Web Conf.
Volume 277, 202321st Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (EC21)
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Published online||23 February 2023|
Microwave current drive for STEP and MAST Upgrade
UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, United Kindgom
2 Istituto per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Plasmi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 20125 Milano, Italia
3 University of Stuttgart, IGVP, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
4 University of Strathclyde, 16 Richmond St, Glasgow, G1 1XQ, United Kingdom
5 University of York, York, YO10 5DD, United Kingdom
Published online: 23 February 2023
The UK’s Spherical Tokamak for Energy Production (STEP) reactor design program has recently taken the decision to use exclusively microwave-based heating and current drive (HCD) actuators for its reactor concepts. This is based on a detailed assessment considering all viable HCD concepts, covering the grid to plasma efficiency, physics applications, technology maturity, integration, maintenance, and costs. Of the two microwave techniques: Electron Cyclotron (EC) and Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW), EC was deemed the lowest risk and EBW is retained as a potential path to a more efficient, higher performing device. To assess the ECCD efficiency, the GRAY beam tracing code was employed to perform detailed scans of the launcher position, toroidal and poloidal launch angle, and frequency over the first 3 cyclotron harmonics. For EBW, GENRAY/CQL3D were used to estimate the CD efficiency, demonstrating promising results. To reduce the physics uncertainties in present models for EBW coupling and current drive, MAST Upgrade will install two dual frequency (28, 34.8 GHz), 900kW, 5s gyrotrons from Kyoto Fusioneering, as part of the MAST Upgrade enhancements package. This will be accompanied by a flexible 2D steering launcher system to allow midplane coand counter-CD and above midplane launch for co-direction off-axis CD. Coupling efficiency is quantified by measuring the heating induced by reflected (i.e. non-coupled) power to a plate inserted in the reflected beam path. The experiments will also include EBW driven solenoid-free start-up, increasing power and pulse length by a factor of 10 compared to previous MAST experiments. This presentation will discuss the STEP microwave studies and the MAST Upgrade physics design and capabilities.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2023
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