EPJ Web Conf.
Volume 247, 2021PHYSOR2020 – International Conference on Physics of Reactors: Transition to a Scalable Nuclear Future
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Published online||22 February 2021|
KRITZ-1-Mk CRITICAL MEASUREMENTS AT TEMPERATURES FROM 20 °C TO 250 °C
E Mennerdahl Systems Starvägen 12, 18357 Täby, Sweden
Published online: 22 February 2021
Benchmarks are needed to validate methods to account for temperature-dependence of nuclear data. An evaluation of 37 KRITZ-1-Mk critical water height measurements, together with associated iso-reactivity temperature effects and coefficients, is released with the 2019 Handbook of the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP). The KRITZ zero-power research reactor, operated between 1969 and 1975 in Studsvik (Sweden), was contained in a pressure vessel, allowing full size fuel assemblies or fuel rods in light water at temperatures up to 250 °C without boiling. Preliminary results were published in 1971 and 1972 for four series of altogether 37 measurements with Marviken (Boiling Heavy Water Reactor) UO2 fuel rods, each containing a 235U isotopic mass fraction of 1.35 %. Temperature was the predictor variable, while critical water height was the response variable. Each series was characterized by the fuel rod lattice design and by the soluble boron concentration in water. The KRITZ measurements were focused on temperature-dependence (differences). High measurement correlations reduced the ?k uncertainties, typically from 195 pcm to 40 pcm for a large temperature change. Thermal expansion of fuel and reactor components was not measured. Detailed and simple benchmarks include estimated thermal expansion as a simplification. Benchmark calculation results using JEFF-3.3 nuclear data reduce the large biases observed for older libraries but a remarkable positive temperature trend is observed for series 4. In 2019, Studsvik Nuclear released information on KRITZ-1-Mk and on other KRITZ-1 and KRITZ-2 critical measurements with Boiling Water Reactor fuel assemblies and fuel rod clusters.
Key words: critical benchmark measurements / low-enriched uranium / wide temperature range / reactivity effects / temperature coefficients
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
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